Parkinson’s disease – symptoms and treatment
A disease of the nervous system that more often affects an age group of patients and steadily progresses – is Parkinson’s disease. It manifests itself in impairment of the function of the musculoskeletal system, the ability to take care of oneself, as well as walking and doing elementary things. The signs that appear at the beginning gradually increase, with tremors being the first to appear, followed by involuntary movements of the limbs.
1 – What is Parkinson’s disease?
Modern medicine has no definitive answer to the question of how to stop Parkinson’s disease, and there is no cure per se. However, there are a number of measures to prevent it, improve it, and slow its progression. The disease affects the extrapyramidal system, substantia nigra and basal nuclei, and some other parts of the brain, causing irreversible death of brain neurons.
There are different types of Parkinson’s symptoms:
- Idiopathic. Primary;
- Secondary Parkinsonism;
- Multisystem degeneration parkinsonism-plus;
- Genetic Parkinsonism;
- Also symptoms of the syndrome are due to drug use, lifestyle, mechanical damage to the brain, inflammation, or tumors.
2 – Symptoms of Parkinson’s disease
- Impairment, aggravation, and retardation of the patient’s motor activity and ability to move;
- Increased body tension and muscle stiffness;
- Impaired balance;
- Altered speech and facial expressions;
- Dementia, memory impairment, impaired attention;
- Sleep disturbances;
- Gastrointestinal problems;
- General impairment in performance and ability to care for self.
Based on these symptoms, it is much easier to see if you need to see a doctor yourself. But it is not always Parkinson’s disease that causes these symptoms, sometimes the patient must consider other factors. It may be of a different nature, and cardiovascular disease must be prevented.
3 – Stages of the disease
By assessing the symptoms of the disease, the patient is assigned to a disease stage. Depending on which stage the patient is in, therapeutic measures are determined. There are 5 stages in total, and depending on how quickly the patient progresses from one to the next, the life expectancy of a particular Parkinson’s patient can be estimated.
- Zero, the initial phase. The diagnosis is made by a thorough medical examination, consultation, and tests. At this stage, there are no visible symptoms yet.
- Stage I is characterized by the appearance of one of the limbs. Can often be confused with IBS.
- Intermediate stage added in addition. It already affects the trunk and limbs.
- Second stage. No visit to the doctor to see how the disease manifests itself. It manifests on both sides.
- Third stage. The patient is no longer able to hold the body in a fixed position and control the limbs, but he is able to take care of himself. Bilateral manifestation on the limbs and trunk.
- Stage four: the patient can move, walk and sit, but can no longer do so without support. Sometimes immobility.
- Stage five is the final stage of Parkinson’s disease. Totally disabled and confined to bed. The patient is unable to care for himself.
It can take a long time for the disease to manifest itself, and without clinical examinations, it is difficult to determine whether it has progressed. Regardless of a patient’s age, early diagnosis in the presence of one or another risk factor can help rule out the early progression of the disease. Treatment in a clinical setting is very effective. It is up to the patient to find out which physician is treating the disease and to seek professional help.
4 – Treatment and prevention
No one can determine the exact causes of the disease; it is believed to be inherited, and others are due to lifestyle and other factors, such as age. But the disease can be younger, Parkinson’s disease at a young age is rare, but not impossible. The first symptoms appear at the age of 55-60 years, and according to statistics, there are 60-140 cases per 100,000 population.
The disease is diagnosed by pathomorphological examination, which looks for the presence of Levi bodies in neurons. MRI and CT scans rule out other disease precursors such as tumors or brain damage. A neurologist diagnoses the disease by ruling it out and taking a medical history. Although few people have been cured of Parkinson’s disease, it is possible to live a long, carefree life if the disease is properly diagnosed and treated.
The main causes of Parkinsonism include:
- Environment, toxic substances, workplace hazards;
- Drugs, alcohol, and other bad habits;
- The male sex is much more susceptible to this disease.
Treatment is conservative and the patient is cared for and improved in the hospital under medical supervision. Medications indicated for Parkinsonism include Neuroprotectants, symptom control, physical therapy, and psycho-emotional support to adjust and improve behavioral and cognitive functions. It is important to avoid the harmful effects of certain medications, maintain a healthy lifestyle, and avoid stress and overexertion. Lifestyle affects how quickly Parkinson’s disease progresses.
5 – Conclusions
The disease is not completely curable, but it can be diagnosed at an early stage. This gives many people the chance to live a long and carefree life, even in the risk group of people over 50. It is up to the patient to know all the contraindications of Parkinson’s disease and lifestyle recommendations. Daily Medical specialists provide expert help in diagnosis, treatment, and recovery. The great experience of the doctors will bring positive results even in the first stages of therapeutic measures and treatment. A healthy lifestyle is good for everyone without exception.